Compost Images web site
This page contains images regarding the aspects of compost production listed below. To use an image, click on the thumbnail and you can view and download the full-size file. Images are intended for educational use only, not for commercial use. No permission is needed to use these, but please provide a credit to “WSU” or the “CERWA project.” More details are on the
main page for this site. Topics
Monitoring and Research
Rate #1. A simple way to measure compost application rate is the tarp method. Lay down a tarp that will be totally covered by the spreader pattern. Then drive the spreader over it at operating speed.
Rate #2. Pick up the tarp with the compost and collect into the center.
Rate #3. Carefully pour all the compost into a container for weighing.
Rate #4. Weigh the compost and calculate the rate based on the weight and the area of the tarp. Adjust the spreader as appropriate and keep careful notes of the rate associated with each spreader setting.
Small pilot piles are used to conduct research at the WSU facility.
Steam escaping from composting windrows at the WSU site in Washington.
Temperature can be monitored within the windrows with specialized compost thermometers.
This compost manager is monitoring windrow temperature near Nampa, ID.
Measuring carbon dioxide levels in a windrow is another monitoring approach for process control in composting.
Germination tests are often used to determine compost maturity and insure that the compost is not phytotoxic to plants.
Water is added to windrows using a water truck near Canyon City, ID. Turning piles in summer can lead to excess drying.
This turner is adapted to add water to windrows at a Texas location.
A view of the water nozzles on the windrow turner used to add moisture to compost in dry climates; Texas.
Water has been added via moist feedstocks and lettuce windrows; California.
Water has been added via moist feedstocks and ice cream waste at this site in Vermont.
A grower at Hood River, OR, uses fabric row coverings over the windrows to exclude excess moisture from winter rain.
Excess moisture is removed from manure with this sloping screen separator prior to composting; Idaho.
This equipment is used to remove excess water from manure at a Texas site.
A facility used to dry compost in Vermont.
Contoured windrows to capture leachate at WSU facility.
Forming the initial windrows with a front end loader.
Leachate collection and storage pond at WSU composting facility; Washington.
Pad runoff collection channel at a poultry farm in Idaho.
An abandoned concrete manure storage area is used here as a composting pad; Massachusetts.
Pad drainage at a Washington site.
Paving provides an all-weather working surface at the WSU compost site; Washington.
An asphalt pad is installed at a western Washington composting site.
Preventing runoff from leaving the composting site.
An example of problems from poor drainage management.
Concrete blocks used to reduce equipment noise.
Site Design and Layout
An aerial view of the layout of the WSU composting facility in Pullman, WA.
View of the WSU compost piles in the winter.
A schematic diagram of evaluating site drainage for a compost facility.
A schematic diagram of the construction and drainage for a composting pad.
A diagram of the construction of an aerated static pile.
An example of a circle diagram for a composting site layout.
A diagram of site layout and drainage.
A profile diagram of a windrow site.
Flies can become a nuisance as on this compost bin with fish added.
Birds can be a nuisance like these on compost windrows in Vermont.
This small biofilter is used to control odor at an Idaho composting facility.
A large scale biofilter made with woody debris and compost helps control odor at a Washington site.
An attempt to mask odors at a Washington facility met with limited success.