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Update: Leafhopper Vectors for X-Disease Phytoplasma

May 18, 2021

First Generation Adults are Starting to be Active

First generation adults from leafhopper vectors of X-disease phytoplasma including C. reductus and C. geminatus started being found in traps the week of May 10, 2021. Generally, second generation leafhoppers are of higher concern as first generation leafhoppers are often controlled by your standard insecticide program. To review your current insecticide applications for efficacy against leafhoppers see

Reflective Mulch Field Trials at Parker Pears

green circle with a light green pear tree graphic and the words parker pears

March 23, 2021

Sam Parker, pear grower and social media extraordinaire, shares his experience being a cooperator on the Nottingham lab reflective mulch trials currently taking place in his organic pear orchard.

Clicking the pic will take you to the video on Sam’s Instagram account.  You don’t need an Instagram account to watch it, but you should probably have one so you can follow Sam.

winter pear orchard with leafless trees. white reflective mulch is seen between the rows of trees and a mane is in the foreground talking to the camera


Leafhopper Deterrence Linked to X Disease Management

two people walk between rows of cherry trees on white reflective fabric covering the orchard floor

March 10, 2021

Leafhopper Deterrence Linked to X Disease Management

WSU entomologists and industry partners learn about X disease vectors to help the cherry industry optimize management. Work by the Nottingham lab on insecticide efficacy (“catching lots of wild leafhoppers and trying to keep them alive long enough to kill them”) and systemic insecticides applied via soil drench is highlighted.

Codling Moth Task Force

close up of a red apple with multiple black ringed holes indicative of codling moth damage

Mach 9, 2021

Codling Moth Task Force

Codling moth has been the key pest of pome fruits across the growing regions of Washington and Oregon for over 100 years. During that time, pest management programs regularly evolved as key pesticides were phased out and new technology was incorporated. As we continue to adapt new tools and tactics, there is a need to synthesize and evaluate past and current codling moth research and management recommendations, and to communicate that information to stakeholders. The Codling Moth Task Force was created to take the lead in this issue.

Nottingham, L,, C. Adams, E. Beers, M. Doerr, and D. Epstein. 2021. New task force tackles codling moth.  Good Fruit Grower Magazine, March 1, 2021.

Sustainable Control of Pear Psylla

mostly white slide with drawing of tree fruits in the lower left corner, a small video feed of the speaker in the upper right corner and the title be brave pear psylla management

February 22, 2021

Be BRAVE: Pear Psylla Management

On Thursday, February 18, 2021 as part of an OSU/WSU webinar, Stijn van Laer gave a talk on pear psylla management in northern European pear orchards.  Stijn is a crop consultant that works for company called FruitConsult based in Belgium.  They are a private consulting firm that does not sell products (i.e., chemicals), just management recommendations. Stijn discussed management of pear psylla in European orchards with conservation biological control (i.e., only using soft insecticides and at economic thresholds) and by augmentation of earwigs.  He also discussed the importance of proper sprayer calibration and how this can make or break effective management.

Evaluation of IPM for central WA pear orchards

article title and abstract in the journal biological control

February 9, 2021

IPM for Central WA Pear Orchards

Pear psylla and honeydew marking to fruit cause significant economic damage to pears in Washington, a key pear growing region of the United States. The goal of this project is to compare an integrated pest management (IPM) program using materials which selectively target pests and relies on large natural enemy populations to grower standard conventional and organic pear pest management.

Dupont, T., C. Strohm, L. B. Nottingham and D. Rendon. 2021. Evaluation of an integrated pest management program for central Washington pear orchards. Biol. Control. 152: 104390.

Prebloom Management of Pear Psylla with Particle Film

February 8, 2021

Psylla will soon be on the move!

Louis Nottingham and Robert Orpet wrote an article in the February 2021 edition of ‘Tree Fruit News’ reminding growers to start preparing dormant sprays of kaolin clay (Surround) to deter pear psylla colonization in the orchard. A dormant Surround spray will provide the first line of defense to keep psylla from entering your orchard. The optimal time to make this first Surround application depends on weather, but here is a good rule of thumb: if it is warm and dry enough for you to safely spray, go for it – psylla are probably colonizing your orchard!

Click the pic to learn more.

closeup of two pear buds in the orchard
Picture taken on 3/24/20 of a pear bud just before burst, sprayed at dormant (3/16/20) with Surround CF at 50 pounds/acre. This bud remains protected against oviposition until fresh green tissue ‘bursts’ from within the hard exterior scales.


Dr. Angelita (Angel) Acebes-Doria interview

November 19, 2020

Nottingham Interviews Dr. Angelita (Angel) Acebes-Doria in Entomology Today.

Read my interview with an incredibly inspirational entomologist, Dr. Angel Acebes-Doria; someone I’m proud to call a colleague and friend.

Angel discussed topics that many early career scientists face, such impostor syndrome and running a research lab during COVID, but also some that are more specific to people who came to the US from other countries for their education and careers.

Huge thanks to Angel for bravely sharing her stories and perspectives on some difficult issues, and to the Entomological Society of America, Early Career Professionals Committee, and Entomology Today for the platform and opportunity.

Picture and Link to Angel Acebes interview
Nottingham interviews Dr. Angelita Acebes-Doria, Entomology Today

Reflective mulch for pear psylla

two people working in a pear orchard with reflective mulch

November 19, 2020

New Publication!

Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster), has remained the most challenging pest of commercial pears in Washington and Oregon, the top producers of pears in the United States. The lack of effective integrated pest management tactics for this pest has been a major barrier to effective management. In this study, we examined the potential for reflective plastic mulch affixed beneath pear trees to suppress pear psylla. In 2017 and 2018, single pear tree (cv. Bartlett) plots of reflective plastic mulch, black plastic mulch, and no mulch (check) were established in a research orchard to compare their effects on pear psylla.

Nottingham, L. B. and E. H. Beers 2020. Management of pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), using reflective plastic mulch. J. Econ. Entomol. 113:2840-2849.

screenshot of publication in the journal of economic entomology